Animal Science Terms - A

Anhydrous Milkfat (AMF): commercially prepared extraction of cow's milkfat, found in bulk or concentrated form (comprised of 100% fat, but not necessarily all of the lipid components of milk)

Animal Protein: protein derived from meat, eggs or dairy products

Animal Welfare: animal welfare is the physical and psychological well-being of non-human animals

Anthelminic: drug used to control infections of multi-celled parasitic worms (examples of helminthes: flukes, tapeworms, roundworms), commonly known as a wormer. The drug either expels or kills internal parasites

Antibiotic: class of pharmaceutical products (drug) usually produced by living organisms (molds, bacteria or green plants) that can inhibit or kill undesirable bacteria (e.g., penicillin). They are capable of destroying or weakening certain microorganisms, especially bacteria or fungi, that cause infections or infectious diseases. They are generally injected or fed to the animal that helps it fight off infection. Antibiotics do not kill viruses

Antibody: protein produced by the body’s immune system that recognizes and helps fight infections and other foreign substances in the body

Anticoccidial: see Coccidiostat

Antioxidant: compound added to feeds to prevent the oxidative rancidity of fats

Artificial Insemination (AI): advanced breeding process that involves collecting semen from a male, inspecting it for quality, freezing it until it is ready, and then artificially inserted (by injection) into the female reproductive tract (cervix or uterus) through the use of an instrument (French gun) in order for the animal to become pregnant. Studies show that AI is safer and more efficient than using natural insemination. In addition, AI is one of many modern techniques that helps farmers improve the genetics of their herds

As fed: expression of feed nutrient content with moisture included. Nutrient content on an "as fed" basis is always lower than on a "dry matter" basis

Ash: inorganic mineral elements of animals and plants, determined in a laboratory by burning off the organic matter at a high temperature and weighing the residue (ash)

Asinus (commonly a donkey): single hoofed mammal of the genus Equus, related to the horses. They typically have a smaller build and longer ears

Atavism: reappearance of a character after it has not appeared for one or more generation

Available protein: portion of the crude protein that can be digested by the animal; it can represent the proportion of total protein after deducting the ADF-N fraction of a feed

Average Daily Feed Intake: amount of feed consumed by an animal each day

Average Daily Gain (ADG): average daily live weight increase of a growing animal, usually expressed in kilograms, grams or pounds/day

Ayrshire: breed of dairy cattle that originated from the County of Ayr in Scotland. The average mature Ayrshire cow weighs 1,000 - 1,300 pounds and has red markings that can vary in color from orange to brown



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