Animal Science Terms - C

Cake: residue remaining after pressing seeds, meat or fish to remove oil, fat or other liquid

Calcium: essential nutrient for building strong bones and teeth that is found in milk

California mastitis test (CMT): kit that can be used to test mastitis in cows and does

Calf: young bovine; term is used from the time of birth up until about 6 - 10 months of age (or has a maximum live weight of 750 pounds) when the animal is weaned. The term is used for cattle of either sex from birth to weaning. Meat from a calf is called veal. Calf can also refer to young from animals like camels, dolphins, elephants, giraffes and  hippopotamuses

Calving ease score: numerical score quantifying calving ease, ranging from 1 for an easy, unassisted calving through 5 for an abnormal presentation

Calving interval: period between two successive calving is calving interval

Camelid: any two-toed ruminant of the family Camelidae, including the camels, llamas and vicunas

Canter: three beat gait in which the first and third beats are made by two legs striking the ground independently and the second beat by a diagonal pair striking the ground together

Capacious: lots of space, room to grow (could be used to describe many aspects of an animal)

Capon: male chickens that have been castrated and they are harvested at 4-8 months old. They weigh 5-9 pounds and produce more white meat and have higher fat content than other chickens

Caprine: scientific name for the goat species

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE): infectious disease that causes arthritis and progressive inflammation in one or more organs or tissue systems such as the joints, bursae, brain, spinal cord, lungs and udder. This disease affects goats and is currently incurable

Carbohydrates: major energy source found in most feedstuffs. Carbohydrates contain twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon and as many oxygen atoms as carbon, commonly designated as CH2O. They include substances such as sugar, starch, fiber, cellulose and hemicellulose. They are usually divided into two fractions: structural (fibre from plant cell wall) and non-structural (sugars and starches from plant cell contents)

Carrier: edible material to which ingredients are added, facilitating uniform distribution of the ingredients into a feed mixture

Carries through to Twist: adequate amount of muscle down the back and inside of

Cattle: domesticated mammals of the genus Bos

Carcass: dressed body of a slaughtered animal

Casein: dominant protein (80 percent) in cow’s milk. Casein is vital to cheesemaking, and has a variety of uses in manufacturing as well

Castration: removal of the testicles

Cecum: large pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine. The appendix and the ileum of the small intestine both connect to the cecum. In plant-eating mammals, the cecum is important because it houses bacteria that aid in the breakdown of plant fibers

Cellulose: major structural carbohydrate in plants. A chief part of plant cell walls, it is fiber that is poorly digested by nonruminant animals. Cellulose is composed of glucose molecules chemically linked by a “beta” linkage that is only digested by bacteria such as those in the rumen and/or cecum

Chaff: husks or other seed coverings and other plant parts separated from seed during harvest or processing

Chelated mineral: compound formed between an organic molecule and a mineral that increases mineral bioavailability to the animal, which can reduce excretion of excess minerals in manure

Chemical analysis: use of standard chemical analytical procedures to determine the composition of a feed

Chevon: french for goat; term refers to the meat of goat. These are animals are slaughtered near or shortly after weaning

Chick: newly hatched or a very young chicken

Choline: essential nutrient, not strictly a vitamin by definition, closely associated with fat metabolism and transport, commonly added to swine and poultry rations. Ruminants generally synthesize adequate amounts, but choline may be added to diets of early lactation dairy cows

Chopped: feed ingredients reduced by cutting with sharp-edged instruments (knives) slightly smaller particle size 

Cistern: final temporary storage area of milk in the udder

Cleaned: cleared of undesired materials by screens, magnets or forced air

Cleats (Clays, Claws, Clees): two halves of the goat’s hoof

Cloning: creates a genetic “twin” of another animal. A cloned animal has the same DNA as its parent, much like identical twins share the same DNA. Many types of animals have been cloned in the past 20 years. The process involves transferring genetic material from one animal to the egg of another, then implanting the embryo in a host female for conventional development and birth

Closed Head or Flock: no new animals are introduced into the herd or flock

Clostridial Infection: bacterial infection that can occur in sheep and goats. Some goat diseases that are caused by this infection are: Blackleg, Enterotoxaemia (Overeating disease) and Tetanus

Coccidiosis: disease that is commonly exhibited in younger animals caused by a protozoa parasite infection. It is characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, lack of thriftiness, and weakness

Coccidiostat: drug used to control coccidial infections. Coccidia are microscopic protozoa that live in the intestinal lining of livestock and poultry, causing severe diarrhea or unthriftiness

Cock: male chicken at least one year of age or older

Cockerel: male chicken less than one year old

Colostrum: first milk secreted by mammals after giving birth. The milk is thick and golden yellow in color and contains rich nutrients and antibodies. If the newborn does not consume the milk within the first 24 hours of life, there is very little chance the animal will survive because of the passive transfer of immunity to the calf from the mother

Colt: an intact, male horse under 3 years of age

Combine: farm implement that harvests and threshes (separates the grain kernels from the stalk) various crops

Complete feed: thoroughly blended mixture of different feed ingredients formulated to meet specific nutrient requirements that allows for greater efficiency in feeding and provides better control of nutrient intake. A complete feed may or may not include the roughage portion of the ration

Compost: soil amendment and fertilizer made with biodegraded animal residuals, leaves, sawdust, grass clippings, soil and/or water. (Read about how dairy farmers use & recycle compost)

Concentrate: classification of feedstuffs in non-forage part of an animal’s diet, principally grain and including oil seed meal and other feed supplements that are high in energy and/or protein, but low in crude fiber. They are usually further divided into energy and protein concentrates. Often used interchangeably with supplement (e.g., corn, barley, soybeans)

Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO): livestock operation defined by the federation government as “an animal feeding operation where more than 1,000 'animal units' (as defined by the regulation) are confined at the facility; or more than 300 animal units are confined at the facility and either one of the following conditions are met: pollutants are discharged into navigable waters through a man-made ditch, flushing system or other similar man-made device; or pollutants are discharged directly into waters of the United States which originate outside of and pass over, across, or through the facility or otherwise come into direct contact with the animals confined in the operation."

Conception: successful union of male and female gametes & implantation of zygote

Condensed: reduced to a denser form by removing moisture 

Condensed distillers' solubles: liquid portion or "syrup" that has been separated from the residual fermentation stillage or mash, with a portion of its water content evaporated. The solubles usually contain 25%-30% dry matter and are often re-combined with the corn distillers' grains to form corn distillers' grains with solubles

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): variety of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid naturally formed in the rumen through the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen bacteria. Consumption of meat and milk containing CLA has been linked to potential health benefits in humans

Conformation: combination of structural correctness and muscling of the animal including the frame and shape of the animal

Coproducts: see Byproduct

Corn distillers' grains: residual grains or byproduct that contain the nutrients remaining after the starch from corn has been fermented to alcohol. The concentration of these residual nutrients is approximately 3x that found in the original corn

Cornish game hens: cross between a Cornish and Plymouth Rock chicken (although originally they were pure Cornish), 4-5 weeks old, weighing about 2 pounds. They may be of either sex

Cover crops: temporary vegetative cover that is grown to provide protection for the soil and can also provide extra profit for the farmer

Cow: mature female bovine that has had a calf. (This term may also be used for other species)

Cracked: particle size created reducing the size of feed ingredients by a combined breaking and crushing action

Cream: milk is separated by large machines in bulk. Cream is the high-fat milk product separated from milk. The cream is processed and used to produce various products with varying names, such as “heavy cream” or “whipping cream.” Cream contains at least 18% milk fat. Some cream is dried and powdered and some is condensed by evaporation and canned

Creep Feeder: enclosed feeder meant to keep larger (older) animals out for supplementing the ration of young animals

Cria: young llama

Crimped: feed particle size created by rolling feed ingredients through grooved rollers

Cross Breed also Crossbreeding: animal whose parents are of two different breeds. For example, breeding a Hereford cow with an Angus bull

Crown Roast: made by adjoining two Frenched eight-rib racks with twine and bending them to form a circle. The ends are secured by twine

Crude Fat: estimate of the total fat content of feeds. The crude fat is estimated using ether extraction

Crude Fiber (CF): more fibrous, less digestible portion of a plant primarily consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. A method of estimating the fiber content is the analysis of a feedstuff by sequential extraction with acid and alkaline solutions. It requires chemical analysis that involves extraction of a ground feed sample with diethyl ether followed by sequential boiling in dilute acid and dilute base. Residue is then burned in a furnace; CF is calculated as the difference in weight of the sample before and after burning. CF has been replaced by ADF and NDF fibre fractions in ruminant feeds but is still reported for monogastric feeds

Crude protein: estimate of the total protein content of a feed determined by analyzing the nitrogen content of the feed and multiplying the result by 6.25. Crude protein includes true protein and other nitrogen-containing non-protein substances such as ammonia, amino acids, nitrates. Crude protein is used for energy and helps build tissue

Crumbles: pelleted feed that has been broken into smaller granular pieces

Cryptorchid: condition where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum sac

Cubes : long or coarsely cut hay compressed into high density cubes to facilitate transportation, storage and feeding

Cubic Centimeter (cc): volume measurement identical to milliliter (ml)

Cud: partially digested food that is brought up from the rumen (regurgitated from the first compartment of the cow’s stomach into the mouth) to be chewed again by ruminants such as cattle or sheep. A cow may spend seven hours a day consuming food and an additional 10 hours a day chewing her cud

Cull: select and remove a substandard, inferior animals from the herd or flock for potential sale

Cultivator: farm implement that breaks up the soil into small pieces

Curds: white solid clumps of protein and other milk components that are formed when milk coagulates (clumps together) in the cheesemaking processCurds are pressed into blocks or barrels for proper aging and curing of the cheese

Cured: preserved by drying, chemical additives or other preservation methods

Cute Headed: short muzzled (like Irish whiskey cattle), usually means earlier maturing



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