Animal Science Terms - F

F1: offspring resulting from the mating of a purebred (straight-bred) bull to purebred (straight-bred) females of another breed

Factory Farm: refers to large scale farming operations

Family Farm: proprietorships, partnerships, or family operations that do not have hired managers

Farrowing: giving birth to a litter of pigs

Fat-soluble vitamins: includes vitamins A, D, E and K. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in body fat reserves. Vitamins A, D and E are supplemented in many livestock rations

Fatty acid: major component of fat that is used for energy by the animal. Molecules are composed of carbon and hydrogen in chain-like formation

Fats: oily compounds found in plant and animal tissues. Fats serve mainly as a reserve source of energy. Fat can also insulate organs from heat loss

Fecal Egg Count (FEC): using a fecal flotation method to determine the level of parasite load in goats based on the number and type of parasite eggs found in the feces

Fecal Flotation: microscopic procedure used to identify various parasite eggs in a fecal sample. There are two basic methods used: Modified McMasters and Wisconsin methods

Feces: manure or excrement produced by an animal

Fecundity: potential capacity of the female to produce functional ova regards of what happens to them after they are produced

Feed: animal foodstuffs. For example: corn can be an important ingredient in cattle feed. Sometimes referred to as fodder

Feed Additive: anything added to a feed, including preservatives, growth promoters and medications

Feed efficiency: for livestock, it is ratio describing the amount of meat, eggs, or milk produced per unit of dry matter consumed. Animals with increased feed efficiency may gain more weight than animals with low efficiency, even if both animals consume the same amount of feed

Feed grade: term to describe the quality of feedstuffs suitable for animal, but not human, consumption

Feed processing: physical or chemical changes in feedstuffs, which influence their nutritional value

Feeder Cattle: cattle, aged out of the calf stage, that have gained a sufficient size and weight to be sold as feedlot replacements

Feeder pig: young pig, most often between 40-70 lbs. that is produced by one farmer and sold to another for growing out to market weight

Feedlot: confinement facility where cattle are fed to produce beef for the commercial trade. May be under a roof or outdoors

Fermented: feed ingredients subjected to an aerobic or anaerobic process in which yeast, moulds or bacteria act to produce alcohol, acids, B complex vitamins or antibiotics

Fertility: natural capability to produce offspring. In animals, this refers to the female’s ability to produce viable eggs or the male’s ability to produce viable sperm

Fertilization: process by which two gametes (reproductive cells each having half a set of chromosomes) fuse to become a single cell called a zygote, which develops into a new organism. Among many animals, like mammals, fertilization occurs inside the body of the female

Fetus: unborn offspring that has developed organ systems. This term applies to the baby after embryonic development and until birth

Fiber (in diet): portion of a feed (grains, fruits and vegetables) that is indigestible or slowly digested cellulose by ruminants. It may be expressed as crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid fiber or effective fiber. Fiber helps the intestines absorb water, which increases the bulk of the stool and causes it to move more quickly through the body. See also see Structural carbohydrate

Fiber (in plants): one of the elongated, thick-walled cells, often occurring in bundles, that gives strength and support to tissue in vascular plants

Fiber Goat: type of goat used for fiber production. The hair is harvested and used for textile production. Angora and Cashmere are two common fiber breeds of goats in the U.S. 

Filly: female horse under 3 years of age

Fines: any materials that pass through a screen whose openings are immediately smaller than the specified minimum particle size

Finish/Condition: refers to the amount of external fat that covers the body.

Flaked: feed ingredients that are rolled or cut into flat pieces with or without prior steam conditioning

Flat Boned: cannon bones appear to be more flat than round when viewed from profile 

Flat Ribbed (Slab sided): meaning they lack the desired shape to the rib which lends to having more volume or internal width. It doesn’t necessarily make one shallow or short, which are other indicators that an animal lacks volume and capacity…those are different, though. Slab sided cattle are typically also lighter muscled and narrow based, but I don’t suppose that is automatically the case

Flock: indicates a group of goats, sheep, or poultry

Flour: soft, finely ground meal consisting mainly of starch and gluten obtained during grain milling

Fluid Milk: milk that is sold at stores in the form of milk or cream

Flushing: 1. The practice of increasing a female animal's energy intake prior to and during the breeding season; may increase conception rate and/or litter size. This process of increasing the high quality forage or feed concentrate before breeding season starts. The practice is used to increase the number of ovulations to try to increase the number of offspring 2. A process to clean feed-mixing equipment to reduce remaining traces of feeds or additives left over from prior use

Foal: animal in the equine family, of either sex, that is under 1 year of age 

Food and Drug Administration (FDA): monitors and regulates public health by ensuring the safety and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices

Forage: plants or plant parts that make up the grassy portion of the diet of goats, sheep and cattle. Forage may be fresh, dry or ensiled (e.g., pasture, green chop, hay, haylage) 

Forb: any non-woody broad-leaf plant that is not a grass

Forequarters: area on the animal’s body that includes the withers, front legs, feet, shoulder, chest and brisket area

Founder: refers to a consequence of acidosis, resulting in rapid growth of the hoof

Formula feed: two or more ingredients combined, mixed and processed according to specifications

Free Choice (Ad Libitum): feed made available to an animal at all times so that the animal can eat whenever and as much as it chooses

Freemartin: heifer born as a twin to a bull calf (approximately 9 out of 10 will be infertile) 

Freestall Barn: facility housing dairy cows that provides the animals with a clean, dry, comfortable resting area and easy access to food and water. The cows are not restrained and are free to enter, lie down, rise, and leave the barn whenever they desire

Frenching: frenching is the process of removing one and a half inches of meat from the end opposite the loin eye of the roast or rib chops

Fresh Cow: cow that has recently given birth to a calf

Freshen: when animals give birth and starts milk production

Frozen Semen: semen collected from animals and stored at a low temperature to preserver the fluid. Frozen semen is useful in artificial insemination and embryo transfer work with cattle

Fryer (young rabbit): rabbit that is 2 months old and weighs 3 ¾ lbs to 4 ½ lbs.

Fryer (chicken): meat chicken usually marketed at 12 - 20 weeks

Full sib: full brothers or full sister

Functional feed: feedstuff specifically used because of its nutrient composition to enhance dietary content and potentially influence the nutrient content in livestock products (e.g., milk, meat, eggs)



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