Animal Science Terms - G

Gain: acquire as an increase or addition: to gain weight; to gain speed; an increase

Gambrel restrainer: restraining device that is made of plastic placed over the top of the animal’s neck, with slots on either side to hold both front legs of the animal

Gander: male goose over 1 year of age. (Also referred to as old gander.)

Geese: wild or domesticated water birds of the family Anatidae and of the genera Anser and Branta that typically have a shorter neck than a swan and a shorter, more pointed bill than a duck

Gelding: castrated male horse or llama of any age

Gene: segment of DNA that is the basic unit of inheritance, which is transmitted in gametes or reproductive cells. It is the physical basis of heredity and can regulate expression of hair color and height

Genetic Engineering: science of altering and cloning genes to produce a new traits in an organism or to make a biological substance, such as a protein or hormone

Genetics: scientific study of the principles of heredity and the variation of inherited traits among related organisms

Genome: total amount of genetic information in the chromosomes of an organism

Genotype: specific genes that the animal has on its chromosomes. The genotype of an animal is set at conception and controls the potential performance, color, size, and fertility of the animal. The genotype and environment combine to produce the phenotype of the animal

Germ: seed embryo

Germplasm: material on the basis of heredity taken collectively. The sum of gene constitution of an individual 

Gestation: condition of female when developing fetus in present in the uterus

Gestation period: also called parturition period or pregnancy period. It is the period from the date of service (actual conception) to the date of parturition (birth). This period varies according to species of animals e.g. is cows 279-283 days, in buffalo 310 days, sheep 148-152 days, goat 150-152 days

Gilt: female swine that has not given birth

Gluten: tough nitrogen containing substance remaining after the flour is washed free of starch

Go–Back Land: land that was once cultivated and allowed to go back to grass and weeds, usually for the purpose of being grazed by cattle

Goose: singular of geese; female goose

Gosling: young goose up until feathers have replaced all of their down

Gram (g): 1/1,000 of a kilogram (kg) or 1/28 ounce (28 grams = 1 ounce). It is a small unit of weight

Grain: seed from cereal plant (e.g., oats, corn, wheat)

Grain Bin: upright storage building for corn and grains after they have been harvested (smaller version of a silo)

Green: generally means “not ready”. It often refers to body condition…if a calf is lean or lacking condition, we’d say the calf is “green”. The term is also used to describe cattle that are “green broke” meaning they’ve been started on halter, but need more work

Goat: species in the subfamily Caprinae and closely related to sheep. There are more than 300 distinct breeds of goat. They are raised for their meat, hide, milk, and fur depending on breed

Goose Necked/Fronted: rocket fronted, choke neck, clean necked and throat latch, without excessive leather or skin

Grits: coarsely ground cornmeal from which the bran and germ are removed

Groats: cereal grain seeds (oat, wheat, rye, and barley) with hulls removed

Gross energy (GE): laboratory analysis that measures the total combustible energy in a feed. It is determined by the amount of heat produced when a feed sample is completely burnt in a bomb calorimeter

Ground: particle size reduced by mechanical shearing, wearing or impact

Guernsey: small, cream-and-brown breed of dairy cattle that produces more milk per unit of body weight than any other breed. Guernseys are renowned for the high butterfat content of their milk. The Guernsey was bred on the British Channel Island of Guernsey and descended from cattle stock brought from nearby Normandy



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