Animal Science Terms - I

Immunity: protection from disease that comes as a result of the body’s normal immune system response 

Implantation: become attached to and embedded in the maternal uterine lining. Used for a fertilized egg

Inbreeding: breeding or mating of related individuals within an isolated or closed group of organisms or people. Inbreeding can something results in a loss of vigor or health in offspring. However, in agriculture and animal husbandry, the continued breeding of closely related individuals can help to preserve desirable traits in a stock

Incubation: 1. act of warming eggs in order to hatch them, as by a bird sitting upon a clutch of eggs in a nest. 2. act of keeping an organism, a cell, or cell culture in conditions favorable for growth and development. 3. The maintenance of an infant, especially one that is ill or born before the usual gestation period, in an environment of controlled temperature, humidity, and oxygen concentration in order to provide optimal conditions for growth and development. 4. The development of an infection from the time the pathogen enters the body until symptoms first appear

Industrial Milk: milk that is sold for further processing into dairy products such as cheese, ice cream, and other dairy products

Internal Parasites: parasitic organisms that live inside the gastrointestinal system of the host and rob their host of food or blood. Internal parasites include hookworms, tapeworms, coccidia and blood parasites

International unit (IU): standard unit of potency of a biological agent (e.g., vitamin, hormone, antibiotic, antitoxin); also called a USP unit in the U.S.

Intradermal: within the dermis, this is the layer of skin below the epidermis (outermost layer)

Intramuscular (IM): within a muscle. The route of administering medications by inserting the needle straight into the skin and deep into the muscle

Intramuscular fat: fat located throughout skeletal muscle. It is responsible for the marbling seen in certain cuts of beef. In humans, excess accumulation of intramuscular fat is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

Intranasal (IN): spraying or administering of a solution into the nostrils

Intravenous (IV): medication injected into the vein, usually the jugular vein

Invertebrate: animal that has no backbone or spinal column. Most animals are invertebrates. Corals, insects, worms, jellyfish, starfish and snail are invertebrates

Iodized: treated with iodine or iodide 

Ionophore: carboxylic polyether antibiotic that affects ion transport across cell membranes, inhibits the growth of some gram-positive bacteria and promotes animal growth. Depending on the level fed, an ionophore may also act as a coccidiostat

Irradiated: feed ingredients that is treated, prepared, or altered by exposure to a specific level and duration of radiation 

Irrigation: replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. Irrigation sources include a nearby or distant body of water such as a river, spring, lake, aquifer, well or snowpack. The water can be directly channeled to the fields or stored in a reservoir for later use



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