Animal Science Terms - S

Saturated fat: completely hydrogenated fat, solid at room temperature (e.g., animal tallow)

Savanna: breed of meat goats that originated from South Africa. This breed states that the goats are hardier than some other breeds and have good muscle traits

Savannah: plant community with scattered, open-grown, fire-tolerant trees with a grassy, herbaceous understory

Scale: device used to weigh animals and feed

Scours: diarrhea

Scrapie: scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system, one of the class of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)

Scratch: whole, cracked or coarsely cut grain

Screenings: small, imperfect kernels, broken grains, hulls, weed seeds and other foreign material obtained from the cleaning of grain

Scrotal circumference: measure of testes size obtained by measuring the distance around the testicles in the scrotum with a circular tape. Related to semen producing capacity and age at puberty of female sibs and progeny

Scrotum: skin sac or bag containing the testicles of a male animal

Scurs: rudimentary horn or horny tissue. A small rounded portion of horn tissue attached to the skin of the horn pit of a polled animal and not the bone of the skull

Second cross: progeny resulting from the mating of true half-breeds and a distinct breed

Seed bank: reference to weed and brush seeds that have accumulated in the soil over many years

Semen: thick, whitish fluid that is produced during ejaculation by male mammals and carries male sperm cells

Septicemia: serious infection in which the bloodstream is invaded by large numbers of causal bacteria which multiply there

Service: process in which mature male covers the female i.e. in heat with the object to deposit spermatozoa in the female genital tract is called service

Settled: female that is pregnant

Sex Hormone: any of various steroid hormones that regulate the sexual development of an organism and are needed for reproduction. Testosterone and estrogen are sex hormones

Sheep: 1. any of various usually horned ruminant mammals of the genus Ovis in the family Bovidae, especially the domesticated species O. aries, raised in many breeds for wool, edible flesh or skin.  2. mature ovine at least one year of age and may also refer to the ovine species

Shoat: young hog (not sexually mature) that has been weaned and is ready for market weighing 150-260 pounds

Shredded: similar to chopped, except feedstuffs are cut longitudinally rather than cross-wise

Sickled-Hocked: condition when an animal has too much angle or set to the hock. This condition, when viewed from the side is identified as the animal having their feet too far under the animal while the hock is in the correct position behind the animal

Silage additives: substances added during the ensiling process to enhance the correct and rapid fermentation of the feed

Silage: forage crop (often grasses) that has been preserved in a high-moisture, succulent condition by partial fermentation in a tight container (silo) above or in a below ground pit. The chief crops stored in this way are corn silage (the whole plant), haylage, high moisture corn, sorghum, and legumes. The main use of silage is in cattle feed. See Ensile

Silo: storage facility (Airtight pit or tower) on farms that is designed to store animal feed or specifically silage. This storage methods helps retains a great deal of the nutrients present in the silage

Sire: male parent. To father or become the sire of

Skim Milk: product left after the cream is removed from milk is called skim, skimmed or fat-free milk

Skin tent: when the skin of an animal is gently pinched and pulled outward. A dehydrated animal’s skin will not rapidly return to its normal position or shape

Small Intestine: long, narrow, coiled section of the intestine that extends from the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine. Nutrients from food are absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine. In mammals, it is made up of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum

Smooth-Mouth: animal that has lost all of its permanent incisors, usually at 7 or more years of age

Soluble intake protein (SIP): portion of the protein intake that is completely soluble in rumen fluid and rapidly utilized by bacteria. Soluble protein forms part (or all) of the degradable intake protein (DIP) value of a feed

Soluble protein: older laboratory measurement that represents the portion of crude protein that goes into solution when mixed in a buffered solution. If 30% of the protein goes into solution, by definition, 30% of the crude protein is soluble

Somatic Cell Count (SCC): number of white blood cells per milliliter of milk or measurement of the number of somatic cells present in a sample of milk. All milk naturally contains some somatic cells, which enable cows to fight infection and ensure good health. Farmers routinely monitor their herds for somatic cell counts as a general gauge of the cow’s well-being

Soremouth: highly contagious, (also to humans), viral infection that causes scabs around the mouth, nostrils, and eyes and may affect the udders of lactating does

Sorghum: cereal grass used mainly for feed grain or silage

Soundness: animal is free from disease and lacks structural defects that affect its usefulness

Sow: sexually mature female hog, after having her first litter

Spanish: breed of goat that was identified in the South West part of the country and is believed to have originated from goats brought over by the Spanish explorers in the 1700’s. Efforts are underway to better categorize this breed and establish breed registry

Species: group of individuals which have certain common characteristics that distinguish them from other group of individuals with in species the individuals are fertile when in different species they are not

Sperm: smaller, usually motile male reproductive cell or most organisms that reproduce sexually. Sperm cells are haploid (they have half the number of chromosomes as other cells in the body)

Stanchion: device for restraining a goat by the neck for the purpose of feeding, milking, hoof trimming or artificial insemination

Stallion: intact, adult male horse

Standing Heat: period in which the female will stand still and accept the male for breeding

Starch: carbohydrate that is a polymer of glucose. Mixture of amylose and amylopectin; represents a store of energy for plan

Steamed: feed ingredients treated with steam to alter physical and/or chemical properties

Steamflaked: processing technique for cereals that subjects the grain to steam under atmospheric conditions for usually 15-30 min, before rolling. Heavy roller mills make the grain completely flat and rupture the cells, making the nutrients available more freely to the animal. Increases feed efficiency and rate of gain compared with feeding dry rolled cereals

Steeped: feed ingredients soaked in water or other liquid

Steer: castrated male bovine. The procedure is often performed when he is still a calf or before the development of sexual maturity is called steer

Sterility: inability to produce any offspring

Stewing fowl: mature male or female chicken over one year of age

Stewer or “mature rabbit”:  rabbit 3 months of age or older averaging 6 pounds or more

Stillbirth: fetus born dead. There can be many possible causes some related to disease others due to nutrition or conditions in the uterus at or before the birth process starts

Stocking rate (per acre): number of animals that can be pastured on one acre, or the number of acres required to pasture one animal

Stockpile forage: forage that is allowed to accumulate for grazing at a later time

Stomach: 1. saclike muscular organ in vertebrate animals that stores and breaks down ingested food. Food enters the stomach from the esophagus and passes to the small intestine through the pylorus. Glands in the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid and the digestive enzyme pepsin. 2. A similar digestive structure of many invertebrates

Structural carbohydrates: complex carbohydrates including cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin that form the plant cell wall; measured in the laboratory as neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Also known as fib

Structural Correctness: free from any conformational abnormalities which includes the skeleton, feet, and legs of the animal

Stylish (Tracking): animal possessing an attractive, pleasing conformation or way of movement

Subcutaneous (SQ) Injections: insertion of the needle just under the skin and not into the muscle. This is important because SQ injectables are designed for a slower rate of absorption

Superovulation: term used to describe the drug-induced (reproductive hormones) production of more eggs than normal by livestock for use during assisted reproductive technologies. An example would be Flushing Cows

Supplement: feed or feed mixtures used to improve the nutritional value of basal feeds. A supplement is rich in one or more of protein, energy, vitamins, minerals or antibiotics, and is combined with other feeds to produce a more complete feed. Often used interchangeably with concentrate

Suckling: young horse still nursing, usually less than six months of age. More often referred to as a foal

Sweet feed: commercial feed sweetened with molasses to improve palatability 

Swine: animal commonly referred to as a pig or hog. Includes various omnivorous, even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including pigs, hogs and boars, having a stout body with thick skin, a short neck and a movable snout



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