Food Science Terms - D

DC power supply: Electrical device to deliver direct current to the capacitor bank

Danger Zone: Range of temperatures at which most bacteria multiply rapidly, between 5°C (41°F)and 140°F. 

Dark Chocolate: see Sweet Chocolate

DE value: Dextrose equivalent percentage of reducing sugar (calculated as dextrose) of glucose syrup and maltodextrin   

Decompression time: Recorded time to bring a mass of food from process pressure to 37% of process pressure. If decompression time is 0.5% or less of process pressure hold time it may be neglected in process determination calculations (seconds)

Decorator's chocolate: Type of chocolate flavored candy used for things such as covering strawberries. It was created to melt easily and harden quickly, but it isn't chocolate

Deesterification: see saponification

Deficiency: lack of essential nutrients leading to malnutrition and disease

Deformation: process where the shape of an object is altered

Degradability: Ability of materials to be broken down. 

Degree of amidation: Percentage of amidated groups. 

Degree of esterification: Percentage of methoxylated carboxyl groups in a molecule. 

Dehydration: Removal of water from the tissues of an organism. 

Demerara: Crystal sugar which contains (mostly on the surface of the crystals) a brown and very pleasantly flavored syrup which comes from the juices of sugar cane. 

Denaturation: is the process of changing part of the protein’s natural structure where the proteins bond together by a chemical or physical reaction (usually by heat, acid or shear). Solubility is lost and the helix structure breaks apart. Using heat to cook eggs is a great example of denaturation

Density: physical property; relationship between mass and how much space (volume) it takes up measured in mass per unit volume of a material. Indicates how open the internal structure is

Deodorization: Process removes the relatively volatile trace components from the oil which contribute to flavor, odor and color. Typically, deodorization gives an oil that is lower than 0.05% FFA. 

Detergent: Chemical that removes soils but does not sterilize equipment. Cleansing substance, especially a synthetic liquid that dissolves dirt and oil. 

Deterioration: process of food decaying or losing freshness

Dew point: Temperature to which the air must be cooled to reach saturation (assuming air pressure remains the same). The dew point is a direct measure of the amount of moisture present in the air, and directly affects how you feel or in other words measures the amount of humidity in the air.  The temperature never drops below its dew point, but can drop to it. 

Dextrose: Glucose (cerelose). 

Dextrin: produced when starch or glycogen is broken down with water (hydrolysis), forming short-carbohydrates of a few glucose molecules joined together

Diallyl sulfide: Type of sulfide/thiol found in onions, garlic, olives, leeks and scallions which may provide the health benefits of lowering LDL cholesterol and of maintaining a healthy immune system. 

Dielectric constant: Property of a material representing the ability to store electromagnetic energy. 

Dielectric loss: Property of a material representing the ability to dissipate electromagnetic energy as heat. 

Diet: total overview of foods eaten by an individual. Often based on personal taste or culture, some dietary choices can be healthier than others

Dietician: healthcare professional, expert in human nutrition and diet

Dietary supplement: Product intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin; mineral; herb or botanical; amino acid; any other dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. 

Diffusion: Process by which different substances mix arising from the random movement of their individual atoms, molecules and ions. 

Diluent: Material into which the sample is diluted. 

Dilution Factor: Ratio of final volume = (aliquot + diluent) / aliquot. 

Dining area: Area provided for the consumption of food, including the serving and eating areas. 

Dipeptide: Compound consisting of two amino acid units joined together, linking the amino (-NH2) group of one with the carboxylic acid group (-COOH) of the other. 

Dipole: For oscillating magnetic fields, a magnetic particle that contains a *north* and *south* magnetic pole. 

Disaccharide: Disaccharides are a class of sugars composed of two sugar molecules (monosaccharide units) bonded together and lose water. The best known example is sucrose, which is composed of a glucose molecule joined with a fructose molecule. Likewise, lactose is composed of a glucose unit with a galactose unit, and maltose is a disaccharide composed of two joined glucose units. 

Disease transmissible by food: Any number of illnesses in which food acts as the vehicle for an agent capable of causing food borne disease. Examples of diseases transmissible through food include Amebiasis, Botulism, Cholera, Campylobactor, Cryptosporidiosis, Cyclospora, E . coli 0157:H7, Giardiasis, Hepatitis A, Listeriosis, Salmonella infections, Shigellosis, Trichinosis, Typhoid fever, Yersiniosis. 

Disinfect: Clean something so as to destroy disease-carrying microorganisms and prevent infection. Example: Even after a finishing barn is clean as defined above, bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are capable of causing disease may remain in the air or on surfaces. Application of a disinfectant after cleaning could help to destroy some of those disease-carrying microorganisms. The effectiveness of the disinfectant could be dependent on temperature, water hardness, surface texture and composition, and the effectiveness of prior washing and rinsing. 

Disinfectant: Chemical that destroys or inhibits the growth of microorganisms that cause disease. 

Disposables: Dishes, glasses, cups, trays, pans, and table accessories intended for single use. 

Dropping point: Temperature at which a sample of fat becomes sufficiently fluid to flow under the conditions of the test. A portion of molten fats introduced into a sample cup, crystallized and then heated at a constant rate. The temperature at which the sample is able to flow through the orifice in the bottom of the cup is the end point. 

Dry beer: Light-bodied brew with little aftertaste and increased alcohol. 

Dutch process: Treatment used during the making of cocoa powder in which cocoa solids are treated with an alkaline solution to neutralize acidity. This process changes the color of the cocoa and develops a milder chocolate flavor. 

DV (Daily Value): Term used in food and supplement labeling. The amount of a vitamin or other nutrient in a serving of a food or supplement is expressed as the percentage of the total Daily Value of that nutrient, based on a daily 2,000 or 2,500 calorie diet. 

D-value, decimal reduction time: Time required for a one-log cycle reduction in the microbial population, at a specific temperature, pressure, or electric field intensity. For the D-value to be meaningful, the semi logarithmic survivor curve must be a straight line. 



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