Food Science Terms - E

E No: EEC-number for food additives

Effluent: Liquid industrial waste

Egg products: Eggs that have been removed from their shells and processed. The term applies to whole eggs, whites, yolks, and various blends with or without non-egg ingredients. The term does not apply to freeze-dried products, imitation egg products, or egg substitutes.   

Egg products processing: Processing of shell eggs into egg products involving breaking, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending, pasteurizing, cooling, freezing or drying, and packaging. 

Electric field intensity, E: Force on a stationary positive charge per unit charge in an electrical field. For ohmic heating and PEF, this can be calculated in an average sense as the voltage divided by the distance between the electrodes. 

Electric field strength: see Electric field intensity. 

Electrical breakdown: Abrupt rise in electric current in the presence of a small increase in voltage. As a consequence, rupture of bacterial cell membranes may occur with the application of an electric field. This effect is more pronounced in pulsed electric field treatment. In microwaves, this can happen if operating at very low pressures, as in freeze-drying. 

Electrode gap: Distance (cm) between the inner and outer electrode. 

Electrode: Part of the pH meter which, when immersed in a product sample, senses electrical potentials which are then converted to the pH measurement or that sample. 

Electroheating: see Ohmic heating. 

Electrohydraulic treatment: Rapid discharge of high voltage electricity across an electrode gap below the surface of aqueous suspensions. 

Electroporation: Phenomenon in which a microbial cell exposed to high voltage electric field pulses temporarily destabilizes the lipid bilayer and proteins of cell membranes. 

Ellagic acid: Matural-cancer fighting agent found in strawberries. 

Emissions: Discharge released into the atmosphere from processing. 

Emulsification: results when two liquids that don’t normally dissolve together – like oil and water – are combined. Oil and water (or vinegar) can be emulsified by mixing but eventually, they will still separate unless you add a binding agent

Emulsifiers: Substances which allow the mixing of two or more immiscible liquids (two liquids that don't mix together such as oil and water) to form a stable emulsion. Emulsifiers work by coating the surface of droplets of one liquid in such a way that they can stay dispersed in the second liquid. 

Emulsifier: additive used in processing to stabilize a solution to prevent separation of components, typically fat/oil and water.

Emulsion: mixture of liquids which don’t naturally combine: oil-in-water emulsions (milk), or water-in-oil emulsions (butter). Liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid. The dispersed phase droplet size ranges from 0.1-10 µm. Important oil-in-water food emulsions, ones in which oil or fat is the dispersed phase and water is the continuous phase, include milk, cream, ice cream, salad dressings, cake batters, flavor emulsions, meat emulsions, and cream liquors. Examples of food water-in-oil emulsions are butter or margarine. Emulsions are inherently unstable because free energy is associated with the interface between the two phases. As the interfacial area increases, either through a decrease in particle size or the addition of more dispersed phase material, i.e. higher fat, more energy is needed to keep the emulsion from coalescing. Some molecules act as surface active agents (called surfactants or emulsifiers) and can reduce this energy needed to keep these phases apart. 

Endosmose: The more rapid flow from the thinner to thicker fluid. see Osmose. 

Energy: Capacity to do work. It can be manifested as heat, motion, electricity, light, etc., all of which forms are convertible into each other. 

Energy density or fluence: Energy delivered from a light source per unit area (Joules/ cm2). 

Enriched, Enrichment: Addition of nutrients to food to replace nutrients that are lost during food processing. 

Enrobing: coating a food product with another ingredient

Essential nutrient: required for normal function but cannot be synthesized by the body, so these nutrients must come from a dietary source

Ester: product of chemical reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid, often producing a fragrant (eg floral, fruity) smell or taste

Esterification: chemical reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid forming an ester

Enteropathogenic: Causing illness in the intestinal tract. 

Enzymes: Chemical substances that act as catalysts in chemical reactions. 

Equilibrium pH: Final pH measured in an acidified food after all the components of the food have achieved the same acidity. 

Equilibrium relative: Moisture content at which a food does not gain or lose weight. 

Equivalence: Capability of different inspection and certification systems to meet the same objectives.

Extrinsic sugar: ’free’ sugars (eg table sugar) or added sugar. When fruits are juiced, they release these sugars

Extrusion: cooking method where mixture of ingredients usually containing starch is forced through small openings at high pressure to form shapes eg breakfast cereal

Eutectic: Occurs when two dissimilar fats are melted, blended together and re-crystallized, the resultant mixture will melt at a lower temperature than either of the components. 

Evaporation: Loss of molecules from a liquid or solution as vapor

Exhausting: Removal of air from within and around food and from jars and canners. Blanching exhausts air from live food tissues. Exhausting or venting of pressure canners is necessary to prevent a risk of botulism in low-acid canned foods

Exdosmose: The more faster flow from the thicker to thinner fluid. see Osmose. 

Extra virgin oil: Highest quality olive oil with acidity not exceeding 1%

Extraction: Removing one material from another; Pectin is extracted from apple pomace by acid and thus made soluble

Extrusion: Forcing a viscous solution through a spinneret-like machine (similar to a shower head). Extrusion cooking is used to produce some snack foods and breakfast cereals by pushing a dough made from a cereal flour or protein mixture into a barrel and cooking the product under pressure and at high temperature and then extruding, often causing the product to expand when it comes into contact with air



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