Food Science Terms - I

Identity preserved production: Food production where the output of an individual farm is uniquely identified through the food system. 

Impervious: Forms an impassable barrier. 

Imitation cheese: Made from vegetable oil; it is less expensive, but also has less flavor and doesn't melt well. 

Inclusion particle: Food particle of significantly different electrical conductivity than its surroundings. 

Information Panel (IP): Label panel immediately to the right of the principal display panel. Nutritional labeling, ingredient listing and manufacturer information are displayed here. 

Inhmogeneous material: Material which exhibits spatial variation in composition 

In-line field: Ohmic heating system where the electric field is aligned along the product flow path. 

Input voltage: Voltage (kV) supplied from a DC power source. 

Insoluble fiber: Type of dietary fiber found in wheat bran, cauliflower, cabbage and other vegetables and fruits which helps move foods through the digestive system and thereby may decrease the risks of cancers of the colon and rectum. Insoluble fiber may also help reduce the risk of breast cancer.

Inspection: Activity such as measuring, examining, testing, or gauging one or more characteristics of an entity and comparing the results with specified requirements in order to establish whether conformity is achieved for each characteristic. 

Insulin: hormone which controls blood glucose levels; insufficient insulin production can cause diabetes

Integrated pest management: Coordinated use of pest and environmental information along with available pest control methods, including cultural, biological, genetic and chemical methods, to prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage using the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment. 

Intensifier: Device for delivering high pressure process liquid generally by using a large diameter low pressure piston to drive a small diameter high pressure piston. The ratio of intensification is directly proportional to the ratio of the area of the large diameter piston divided by the area of the small diameter piston. A 20:1 intensification ratio is common. The pressure in the low pressure cylinder may be used to estimate the pressure of the high pressure process liquid. Intensifiers may be operated as single or multiple stroke devices. Single stroke intensifiers may be used to control the decompression rate of an HPP system. 

Interesterfication: Process permitting the random rearrangement of the fatty acids in the triglyceride molecules and is widely used in the manufacture of lauric specialty fats for the purpose of changing the chemical properties of the fat. 

Internal energy generation: Heat generation within a material and throughout its volume due to the presence of an energy source that is dissipated throughout the volume (see also volumetric heating). 

Internal temperature: Temperature of the internal portion of food product. 

Interstitial fluid motion: Motion of fluid in the spaces between solid particles. 

Intrinsic sugar: naturally occurring sugars present in the cells of foods

Inversion: Hydrolysis of saccharose while cooking, saccharose alters to inverted sugar (fructose and glucose) thus reducing crystallization. 

Invert sugar: sweet liquid mixture of glucose and fructose, normally prepared sucrose is broken down by the hydrolysis, or inversion. Invert sugars help baked goods retain moisture and prolong shelf-life. Candy manufacturers use invert sugar to control graining. Invert sugar is some 10% sweeter than the equivalent amount of sucrose. 

Iodine Value (IV): amount of grams of iodine absorbed by 100g of substance. Used to calculate the degree of unsaturation of a fat. Usually the oxidative stability of an oil increases as the iodine value is lowered. 

Ionizing radiation:Rays of energy that move in short, fast wave patterns and can penetrate cells.

Irradiate: Expose to, or treat, with radiation. 

Irradiation: preserving food by exposing food to radioactive sources to kill pathogens, with limited impact on appearance and quality. Radiation in food processing lengthens shelf life by eliminating pathogenic microorganisms. 

Isinglass: collagen (a form of protein) made from the dried swim bladders of fish, used to accelerate the clarifying of wine and beer.

ISO 9000: International standards for quality management and quality assurance set by the International Standards Organization, including three standards: 9001 for design/development production, installation and servicing, 9002 for production, installation and final product inspection, 9003 for final product inspection and testing. 

ISO: International Standards Organization. 

Isoelectric point: pH value at which a molecule becomes neutral, due to the balance of positive and negative charges across its side chains

Isoflavones: Type of phytoestrogen found in soybeans and soy-based foods which may reduce menopause symptoms. 

Isostatic Principle: Transmission of pressure is uniform and instantaneous; independent of the size and geometry of the food. 

IU (International Unit): Measure of biological vitamin activity, used for vitamins A, D, and E



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