Food Science Terms - T

Tamper evidence: Devices attached to food packages that indicate if a package has been opened or not. 

Tannin: compound that causes a dry sensation in the mouth when wine, tea, chocolate or fruits are consumed. Can also act as an antioxidant

Taste: one of the basic senses. Food is detected in the mouth by receptors in the tongue. The five tastes are sweet, bitter, sour, salty and umami

Taste panel: group of people having a joint duty to taste and/or evaluate a food or beverage product

Temperature danger zone: Temperatures between 5° and 60°C (41° and 140°F) at which bacteria grow best.   

Tempering: Process of preparing chocolate that involves cooling and heating so that it will solidify with a stable cocoa butter crystal form; to bring chocolate to a state in which it has snap, shine and no streaks (glossy appearance). This process prepares chocolate for coating and dipping and gives chocolate a, “melt in the mouth” sensation. Proper tempering, followed by good cooling, is required for good surface gloss and to prevent "fat" bloom (fat crystals forming on the surface after chocolate is melted and cooled)

Tenderloin: Most tender part of a loin of beef, located on either side of a cows backbone. 

Tesla: Unit to express magnetic flux density. 1 Tesla (T) = 104 gauss. 

Texture profile analysis: instrumental test to determine the textural properties of a food

Thermophile: Microorganisms that grow best at temperatures above 110° F (43° C). 

Thermophysical properties: Properties that influence the heating rate of a material. Examples of thermophysical properties are thermal conductivity (the ability of the material to conduct heat), specific heat (the ability of the material to store heat), and density (the mass per unit volume of the material). 

Thiamin: One of the B vitamins. It is sometimes called vitamin B1. 

Thickeners: substance used to increase viscosity, modify texture and impart stability of a liquid

Thief sampler: Equipment to take samples from sacks of food. 

Titratable acidity: Measure of titratable hydrogen ions. Includes H+ ions free in solution and those associated with acids and proteins. 

Titration: Method of accurately adding one liquid to another, commonly used in food analysis. 

Total Quality Management (TQM): Method of organizing a company with specific procedures, policies, and practices that commit it to continuous quality improvement in all its activities. 

Toxin: Poison produced by a living microorganism. 

Traceability: Ability to trace the history, application, or location of an entity by means of recorded identifications. 

Trans fats: trans-fatty acid, a type of unsaturated fat, found in margarines and spreads, occurs in small quantities naturally in beef, butter, milk and lamb fats. It is commonly found in commercially prepared, partially hydrogenated margarines and solid cooking fats. The main sources of trans fats are margarine, shortening, commercial frying fats and high-fat baked goods. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils were developed in part to help displace highly saturated animal and vegetable fats used in frying, baking and spreads. However, trans fats, like saturated fats, may raise blood LDL cholesterol levels (the so-called "bad" cholesterol) - but not as much as the saturates do. At high consumption, levels may also reduce the HDL or "good" cholesterol levels. 

Transgenic: Transfer of genetic material from one organism to another between species. 

Treacle: Syrup containing cane molasses, which darkens it and gives it a special flavor. 

Treatment time: Time that a food product is subjected to a process. For instance in PEF, it is calculated as the product of the number of pulses times the duration of the pulses 

Triacylglycerol: molecule made up of a glycerol backbone with three fatty acid groups attached. A components of fats and oils. Abbreviated to TAG

Triglyceride: main component of natural fats and oils formed of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid groups

Tryptophan: One of the amino acids that makes up proteins. Tryptophan is of special importance in nutrition because it can be converted into the B vitamin niacin. 

Tuber: thick, underground part of a stem eg potatoes, cassava

Turnover: Rate at which fat is used up during a frying operation. Rapid turnover is desirable so that an amount of fresh fat equivalent to the original fat load will have been added to maintain the fat level and replace the absorbed fat in a relatively short time



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