Food Science Terms - V
Vacuum packaged: Food is placed in an air-tight package and all the air removed prior to sealing to prevent growth of microorganisms.
Vacuum: Place or region containing no solid, liquid or gas. The state of negative pressure. Reflects how thoroughly air is removed from within a jar or can of processed food - the higher the vacuum, the less air left in the jar.
Value-added: Processing of products so that their selling price is higher than that of the raw materials from which they were made.
Vanillin: Artificial vanilla flavoring frequently used as an ingredient in chocolate.
Variable frequency: Sweeping over a range of frequencies during the microwave heating process to improve uniformity.
Vegan: Person who eats no foods of animal origin. Vegans need to take supplements of vitamin B12 because they do not get this vitamin from their diets. Vegans may also have difficulty meeting their need for vitamin D.
Vegetable: edible plant parts such as roots, leaves and stems.Examples include: spinach, carrots, celery
Vegetable fat or oil: Naturally occurring or refined and processed fat from any vegetable or plant source. It may be edible or inedible according to source or type of processing.
Vegetative cell: In contrast to the dormant spore, which has no metabolic activity until activated when food is cooked, the vegetative cell is in an active metabolic state in which the bacteria are growing and multiplying at a rate depending on the food temperature, acidity, water, additives, etc.
Vegetative state: Active state of a bacterium where the cell takes in nourishment, grows, and produces wastes.
Verification: Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled.
Vermin: Insect or small animal that is destructive, annoying, or harmful to health. Includes cockroaches, flies, and rats.
Virgin oil: Olive oil of a high quality and acidity not exceeding 2%.
Virulence: Pathogenic or poisonous potential of bacteria, fungi, or other agents.
Virus: Infectious microorganisms that reproduce only in living cells. They cause diseases such as mumps and Hepatitis A and can be transmitted through food.
Viscosity: the measurement of a fluid’s internal friction and resistance to flow (expressed in mPa.s). Typically used to measure the thickness of a liquid
Vitamins: Name that is given to 13 organic substances which are essential in the diet because they cannot be manufactured by the body. Vitamins are needed in very small amounts, but they are essential to life for normal growth and proper nutrition
Volatile: evaporates easily at room temperature.
Volumetric heating: Heating by internal energy generation throughout the volume of a material (see also internal energy generation)