Poultry Science Terms - I

IU: International unit, method in which some drugs are measured 

Ilium: lower small intestine

Immune: resistant to a particular disease

Immunity: resistance to disease (active immunity develops when an individual has had the disease or been vaccinated; passive immunity is passed from mother to chick through the egg) 

Immunoglobulin: antigen

Immunosuppressant: any cause of reduced disease resistance

Impaction: blockage of a part of body passage or cavity in the digestive tract, typically the crop or cloaca 

Inbred: offspring of closely related parents; resulting from inbreeding 

Incidence: number of cases of a particular disease diagnosed during a particular time period

Incrossbred: offspring from crossing inbred parents of the same or different breeds

Incubate: apply the required conditions (heat and humidity) either naturally or artificially, to eggs so that embryos can develop and chicks to hatch out 

Incubation: process by which fertile eggs are subjected to conditions suitable for the initiation and sustaining of embryonic development and the hatching of strong, healthy chickens. The process is accomplished naturally under female fowl or artificially with an mechanical incubator

Incubation period: time it takes for between setting of egg for incubation and hatching; also refers to the time from exposure to a disease causing agent to the time when the first symptoms of the disease appear 

Incubator: artificially heated piece of equipment especially designed to incubate fertile eggs 

Industrial strain: strains developed and managed large corporations and scientifically managed by poultry geneticists to produce birds that meat exact criteria for meat or egg production; Cornish Cross Broilers and White Leghorns are a few of the industrial strains of poultry

Infection: entry of an organism into a body and causing disease by developing or multiplying within

Infectious: capable of invading living tissue and multiplying so as to cause a disease 

Infectious disease: caused by living organisms, which invade and multiply in or on the body and result in damage to the body

Infertile: egg that is not fertilized and therefore will not hatch 

Infertility: inability to reproduce (can be with either the male or female and can be a temporary or permanent condition) 

Inflammation: reaction of tissue to injury or irritation, whereby it becomes red, hot, swollen, painful and possibly loses function

Infundibulum: beginning of the oviduct that picks up the ovulated yolk when it is released from the ovary (also called the funnel); the area in which fertilization of the true egg takes place 

Ingest: eat, drink, or consume; take internally 

Initial Vaccination: first vaccination in a series

Inner/Outer shell membrane: membrane immediately beneath shell which helps regulate air exchange, protective function

Inoculate: give an injection

Inoculant: substance that is injected

Insensible heat loss: heat loss that does not increase the temperature of surrounding environment

Insoluble grit: hard, insoluble material such as granite, flint or bluestone chips consumed by the birds to aid in the grinding of the food in the gizzard; oyster shells are not considered insoluble as they are digested and used by the hen for calcium in egg production

Inspection: examination of a product to insure safety standards are met

Integumentary: pertaining to the skin

Intensity of lay: how well (number) a hen is laying at a given time 

Intensive system: system of housing poultry where the birds are indoors all of the time and do not have access to the outside. It usually entails higher stocking densities

Intramuscular (IM): placement of an injection into muscle tissue

Intranasal: in the nose

Intraocular: in the eye 

Intravenous (IV): placement of an injection into a vein 

Iris: colored circle that surrounds the black center in the chicken's eye 

Irradiation: exposure to radiation. Meat is sometimes irradiated to kill micro-organisms and reduce the number of microbes present due to unsanitary practices 

Isthmus: section of the oviduct next to the magnum where the water and mineral salts are deposited and the inner and outer shell membranes are added 

-itis: suffix indicating inflammation



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