Turfgrass Management Terms F

Facing - slope or incline of a bunker constructed in the direction of the putting green, intended to create an added obstacle for a player to negotiate

Fairway - area between the tee and putting green included in the term "through the green." ; for course maintenance, fairways are those areas of the course that are mowed at heights between 0.5 and 1.25 inches, depending on grass species and the cultural intensity desired. Fairways normally are about 50 yards wide but vary from about 33 yards to more than 60 yards, depending on the caliber of the golf course involved and limitations imposed by architecture or terrain

Fertigation - application of fertilizer through an irrigation system

Fertilizer – natural substance or commercial product that provides plant nutrients for growth when applied to soil or plants. Fertilizers may be liquid or granular and release nutrients in different ways and rates

Fertilizing - act of delivering nutrients to lawns and other plants. Lawns typically need fertilizers high in nitrogen for thick, green growth. More is not better. Too much fertilizer can injure grass and harm the environment. An increasing number of states and municipalities regulate phosphorus in lawn fertilizers because runoff leads to water pollution

Fertilizer burn – the scorch-like damage caused when plants are exposed to fertilizer concentrations beyond what they can process. If severe, fertilizer burn can kill plants 

Fescue - cool-season grasses that thrive in the northern half of the United States. Tall fescues have greater heat tolerance than other common cool-season lawn grasses, making them excellent choices in the transition zone. Smaller-leaved fine fescues have exceptional shade tolerance. They’re an essential ingredient in seed mixes for dense shade areas and lawns with mixed sun and shade

Field Markings – indications/markings on a field, such as inbound lines, numbers, and goal areas that are regulated by the governing bodies for the particular level of play and sport

Fill dirt - low-quality dirt, it’s often used by contractors to fill in depressions and grade lots. Fill costs less than topsoil, but it generally consists of subsoil that lacks organic matter and beneficial microbes needed for healthy lawns and plants. It often contains rocks and other debris as well. Turning fill into healthy garden soil through soil amendments and good cultural practices can be a long, arduous process

Finishing mower (grooming mower) - finishing or grooming mower is a specialized lawn mower that gives a smooth, flat finish to an already well-maintained lawn. It generally has multiple blades capable of cutting lower than a standard mower. Because of its large size, a finishing mower is reserved for professional lawn contractors

Fish emulsion – a natural, filtered liquid fertilizer derived from cleaned, heat-treated fish. Used properly, fish emulsion delivers nutrients gently, without risk of fertilizer injury  

Flail mower - heavy duty mower built to cut grass or brush that is too thick for an ordinary lawn mower. Named for the blades or flails that spin, these mowers are often manufactured to attach to the rear hitch of a tractor and designed to cut areas overgrown with tall grass, vines, and brush

Flexuous - bent alternately in opposite directions; a wavy form

Floret - an individual grass flower including its 2 bracts, lemma and palea

Foliar fertilizers - soluble plant nutrients applied to the leaf and capable of being absorbed through leaves

Foot printing (frost) - discolored areas of dead leaf tissue left after live, frosted turfgrass leaves are walked on

Foot printing (wilt) - temporary foot impressions left on a turf because the flaccid leaves of grass plants have insufficient water to spring back

Forage grass - members of the grass family chiefly used for livestock grazing or “foraging.” Some popular lawn grasses have been developed from forage grasses

Forcing – the process of manipulating cold and warmth to mimic seasonal changes and cause plants to come out of dormancy and bloom before they naturally would. Tulips and other bulbs are often forced so that indoor bulb gardens bloom in midwinter

Friable - soil easily crumbled in the fingers; soil that has the desirable consistency for healthy, uninhibited root growth. It is characterized by variable clods that crumble easily under pressure when moist

Frost date – the expected date of your area's last spring frost or first fall frost, based on historical data. The period of frost-free days between the two dates is the length of your normal growing season 

Full shade – less than four hours of direct sun each day, but still receiving indirect light. This is not the same as dense shade, where few plants grow well

Full sun – minimum of six to eight hours of direct sun each day. In hot climates, full-sun plants may need protection from harsh, midday sun

Fumigant - liquid or solid substance that forms vapors that destroy pathogens, insects, etc. Fumigants are usually used in soils or closed structures

Fungicide - pesticide designed to prevent, inhibit, or control the spread of fungal plant diseases. Once active, many fungal diseases cannot be killed or controlled by fungicides. Fungal plant diseases are best managed through good cultural practices and proactive, preventive fungicide treatments. Examples: dollar spot, brown patch and pythium 

Fungus - low form of plant life that, lacking chlorophyll and being incapable of manufacturing its own food, lives off dead or living plant and animal matter


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