Turfgrass Management Terms G

Gang mower - machine for cutting turfgrass, usually fairways, in which a tractor propels a cluster of reel mowers usually in groups of three, five, seven, or nine

Geniculate - bent abruptly, like a knee

Germination - beginning of growth in a seed, plant bud or joint

Glabrous - having a smooth, hairless surface. The term is often used in classifying grasses. Kentucky Bluegrass blades, for example, have a glabrous surface, which accentuates its rich green color 

Glaucous - covered with powdery or waxy bloom as a plum or cabbage leaf

Glumes -pair of bracts at the base of a spikelet

Grade – the desired slope or elevations of an athletic field achieved by using earthmoving equipment. A proper grade will remove excess water

Grainy - applies to putting greens, the tendency for grass leaves to lie down in one direction and interfere with the natural roll of the ball

Grass - there are about 10,000 species of grasses, of which 1,400 can be found in the United States. Grass plants are members of the Poaceae family of plants and vary greatly in size and growth habit. Some creeping bentgrass varieties naturally stay less than 3 inches tall, even without mowing. Some types of Giant Bamboo, also a grass, can grow as high as 150 feet tall 

Grasscycling - leaving the grass clippings on the lawn after mowing instead of bagging and disposing of the clippings. The “recycled” clippings return nutrients to the soil, reducing the need for fertilization 

Grass pollen - male agent released by grass flowers as part of the fertilization process that leads to seed production. Grass pollen is borne by wind rather than insects. Because grass pollens are generally half the width of a human hair, the wind scatters grass pollen widely 

Grass pollen allergy - common affliction that affects about 400 million people worldwide with symptoms that include runny noses, itchy throats and red, irritated eyes  

Green roofs - roofs planted with living material are green roofs, which are praised as a way to decrease utility costs while also trimming a building’s carbon footprint  

Grooming – the dragging of a mat, broom, turf comb, or spring-toothed rake on the playing surface to stand up the turfgrass, synthetic fibers, or infield material after traffic has occurred

Grooving - form of cultivation using rotating knives that cut slits into the turf and soil

Ground covers - plants used to provide a low-maintenance, vegetative cover that is not necessarily turf

Growing degree days - concept of phenology that uses threshold temperatures to predict when plants and pests will reach maturity. It is based on the idea that plants and pests develop only above a certain threshold temperature. By tracking the high and low of each day, we can assign each day a specific number of units, and, knowing the maturity rate of specific plants and pests, translate that into an accurate prediction of when they should mature.  The method is more accurate than simply relying on a calendar 

Gypsum – a mineral composed of calcium sulfate. Gypsum loosens compacted soil and promote root growth. Gypsum also adds necessary calcium to the turf's soil


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