Turfgrass Management Terms T

Teeing ground - starting place for the hole to be played. It is a rectangular area two club lengths in depth, the front and the sides of which are defined by the outside limits of two tee markers

Texture, grass - width of individual leaves. A narrow-leaved grass like creeping bentgrass is considered fine-textured. A wide-leaved grass like some tall fescues is considered coarse-textured

Thatch - tightly intermingled layer of living, dead, and decaying roots, stolons, shoots, and stems that develops between the green vegetation and soil surface. The average blade of grass lives 40 days and is made of mostly water.  After that time, it then drops to the soil and begins to decompose. Over time, a layer of decomposing matter develops between the ground and the green. Some thatch is beneficial as it moderates the soil from temperature extremes, but if it builds up faster than it breaks down, it can rob the grass of moisture and air. If the thatch layer becomes excessive, properly timed dethatching is needed 

Tiller - above-ground branch on a grass plant.  Tillers are an important component of the crop’s shoot system and through carbon capture and partitioning, contribute to seed yield.  As a tiller grows and develops, additional tillers can form in the leaf axils of that tiller.  All grasses produce tillers

Tolerance - ability of a plant to withstand the effects of adverse conditions, chemicals or parasites

Tometose - covered with matted and tangled hairs

Topdressing – mechanically applying a thin layer of sand, organic matter, or prepared soil mix over a lawn to create a consistent, level, and smooth playing surface. That soil layer can also by filling low spots in the grass, reducing thatch buildup, adding needed nutrients, follow-up to core aeration, add organic matter to the turf, cover stolons or sprigs in vegetative planting, and improving drought resistance and drainage 

Topsoil - general term applied to the top natural layer of soil

Tow-behind dethatcher - simple wheeled device with multiple prongs extending from it that can be towed behind a tractor or riding lawn mower. The prongs drag along the ground to loosen built-up thatch and make a lawn healthier

Toxicity - quality, state or degree of being toxic; poisonous

Transition zone - geographical zone that is too far north to easily grow warm-season grasses and too far south to easily grow cool-season grasses. This section of the central and eastern United States poses the greatest challenge for turfgrass because hot summers kill common cool-season lawn grasses and cold winters kill common warm-season lawn grasses. This zone extends roughly from lower Pennsylvania and New Jersey south through northern Georgia and west along the nation’s midsection through Kansas, Oklahoma and northern Texas

Transpiration – movement of water vapor out of a plant through leaf openings. Moisture passes through the breathing pores of the grass (stomata) resulting in the turf blades releasing moisture into the atmosphere. Transpiration is a normal function, but when the weather is dry and hot, grass can transpire quickly, which may result in wilting and the need for extra watering 

Transplant – plant that is relocated from one growing situation to another, including young plants started indoors and then moved outside. This also refers to the process of moving an established landscape plant to a new location  

Transplant shock – stressed condition that can happen when a plant is relocated to a new growing medium or location. Proper planting and care help limit shock, and plant starter treatments help support plant health while new roots grow 

Triplex mower - machine for closely cutting greens involving a small power unit propelling three precision reel mowers, usually in front. Triplex mowers are also used widely on tees and fairways

Truncate - as though abruptly "chopped off" at the base or apex

Turfgrass – narrow-leaved grass species that form a uniform, long-lived ground cover that can tolerate traffic and low mowing heights (usually two inches or below)

 

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