Wildlife Management terms - B

Bag Limit: number of animals of a particular species allowed to be taken in a 24-hour period (midnight to midnight) unless otherwise specified

Baiting: direct or indirect placing, exposing, depositing, distributing or scattering of salt, grain or other feed that could lure or attract wildlife to, on, or over any areas where hunters attempt to take them

Barbed broadhead: point or portion of a blade projecting backward from a broadhead arrow point designed to hold an arrow within an animal

Barred Owl: large brown bird, marked by bars across the chest and head and lengthwise along the tail, saw-toothed leading edges on its primary (flight) feathers which allows it to fly soundlessly, puffy-headed wood owl. One of only two kinds of owls with large brown eyes

Basal area: way to estimate competition of large trees with ground cover plant communities. Communities with plants that are denser, higher-quality ground cover will be supported at lower basal areas due to increased sunlight reaching the ground 

Bass: bluish gray fish with a spiny dorsal fin separated from the soft dorsal fin by a deep notch. Bass are predators that feed on other smaller fresh-water fish and amphibians

Bachelor Group: group of mid-to-older aged white-tailed deer that travel together as a group during summer and early fall before breaking up and becoming antagonistic to each other when testosterone levels rise and breeding approaches in October and November

Bawl: sound made by a injured or scared deer. Similar to a yell or shriek that a humans make

Beam: main branch of a antler that tines grow on a white tail deer, also known as the main beam

Bed: place were wildlife rests or sleeps. It is usually indicated by grass leaves and dirt compressed on the ground

Bedding Area: area where deer often rest, found close to feeding areas, and often surrounded by thick cover but allow the deer to see and hear approaching danger

Benthic: living in or on the bottom of a body of water

Bergman’s rule: among forms of a particular species, body size tends to be larger in the cooler regions of its range and smaller in the warmer regions

Best Management Practices (BMPs): practices selected as effective and practical means to achieve an objective, given available resources

Biodiversity: includes genetic variability among living organisms on the earth, including the variability within and between species and ecosystems species, species diversity within a community, and diversity in a full range of biological communities 

Biogeography: study of the geographical distributions of organisms, their habitats and the historical and biological factors which produced them

Biological diversity: variety of life forms in a given area. Diversity can be categorized in terms of the number of species, the variety in the types of plant and animal species, the genetic variability of the animals, or a combination of these elements. 

Biological disturbance: discrete or ongoing event in which the proliferation of a plant, animal, or disease organism profoundly alters the functioning of a natural community; may also refer to the effects of herbivory on vegetation

Biting midges: tiny flies that can transmit the epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses. Members of the genus Culicoides 

Black bear: American black bear (Ursus americanus), four legged, omnivorous mammal with black or brown colored fur, massive bodies, and short tails, plantigrade feet (sole/heel walker), and claws capable of climbing trees. They feed largely on fruit, plant matter, insects and animals

Blaze orange: bright fluorescent color worn during deer so the hunter is visible by others in the woods for safety reasons

Bleat: sound made by does and fawns to keep in contact or as a call for help. Does bleat in social situations, as a contact call with fawns, to express distress or occasionally to let a buck know the doe's location

Blind: small enclosure, either manufactured or made from natural materials, that hide a hunter on the ground while hunting

Bluetongue virus (BTV): vector-borne viral disease that affects wild and domestic ruminants. Infection with BTV is unapparent in most animals, but can cause fatal disease in some infected sheep, deer and wild ruminants

Boar: male pig of any age with intact testicles

Bobcat: carnivorous mammal, four legged, nocturnal predator with a tawny colored black-spotted coat, and a short tail. Requires a twenty square mile range to find enough food

Bog: soggy, moist, spongy, or otherwise wet areas with peat soils; the partially or incompletely decomposed remains of dead plants and some animals. A type of peatland

Boone & Crockett Club: group that created a standardized way to score deer racks and maintains a list or record book of big game records

Brackish: referring to habitats which have salinity less than a normal marine environment; salinity usually less than two percent

Brackish water: habitat where the fresh water and the salt water meet, thus diluting the salt water and adding salt to the fresh water suitable for mangrove trees. This is a nursery zone of high animal productivity

Brood: offspring of a bird just hatched

Brood cover: low vegetation such as grasses or forbs that afford protection for ground nesters to raise their young

Brooding: act of caring for young 

Browse: palatable twigs, shoots, leaves and buds of woody plants. The term often is used to describe a category of deer foods

Browsing: ruminants, such as deer, eat by quickly moving through the woods and chewing plants just enough to swallow them. These animals then move to a safe area and proceeds to chew the cud for further digestion 

Browtine: first fork of the antler on a deer

Buck: male deer of any age that, once mature, produce antlers every year and then lose them after the mating season or rut

Buck of Choice: buck that may be legally harvested with no regard to antler restrictions

Buffer strip: small area of permanent vegetation designed to mitigate the effects of run-off containing pollutants, nutrients, and sediment while fostering a biodiverse natural community. They are installed near waterways (riparian buffers) and also by agricultural fields where run-off of pesticides and other nutrients can be an issue

Bull Elk- male elk. Elk are a close relative to the whitetail deer although much large in size

Bunchgrasses: a perennial grass that grows in clumps in meadows, grasslands, wetlands, and forests

Buoyant: object able to float or rise in a liquid

Buteo: any of the various hawks of the genus Buteo, characterized by broad wings and broad, rounded tails

 Button Buck: male fawn with small antler nubbins barely visible on its forehead, 6-8 months old

By-catch: the portion of a fishing catch that is discarded as unwanted or commercially unusable



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