Wildlife Management Terms - C

Calling: act of imitating sounds deer make in order to attract them to your area. Tactics include: grunts, bleats, rattling, and snort wheeze

Camouflage: organism’s ability to blend with its environment, thus protecting it from predators

Canopy: cover or horizontal projection of the vegetation of a plant formed by its leaves and branches

Cape: hide of a deer from the shoulders forward, saved for a taxidermy mount 

Captive Wildlife Facility: location to hold living wildlife in a controlled environment that is manipulated by man for the purpose of exercising ownership, possession or control of the wildlife, and that has boundaries designed to prevent selected species from entering or leaving the controlled environment

Carapace: upper or dorsal surface of a turtle shell

Carcinogens: cancer-causing substances or agents

Carnivora: including predominantly meat-eating mammals

Carnivores: category of animals that prey or feed upon animals and insects. (carni-, flesh; vore-, eater) 

Carrion: bodies of dead animals usually found in nature in a decaying state

Cast: regurgitate indigestible prey remains

Catadromous: life history strategy of fishes that includes migration between fresh- and saltwater. Reproduction occurs in saltwater while growth occurs in freshwater

Carrying capacity: maximum number of animals that a specific area can support without causing habitat degradation 

Centerfire: firearm type that detonates a cartridge by the firing pin striking a primer in the center of the end of the cartridge casing

Cervidae: members of the deer family who commonly ruminants with two-toed hooves, long legs, and have long heads and short tails. North American species in this family include white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, moose and caribou

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD): belongs to a group of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). There are several other types that affect domestic animals: Scrapie (identified in domestic sheep and goats) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also known as “mad cow disease”) 

Circadian: designating a biological period of about 24 hours

Climax stage: final stage of plant succession

Clutch: eggs laid and incubated by a female bird per nesting

Cold-Blooded: having a body temperature that varies with the external environment. Reptiles and amphibians are cold-blooded animals

Collateral benefit: intentional or unintentional benefit gained by a species or habitat as a result of action(s) aimed at a different species or habitat

Colonial waterbirds: birds that gather together in dense colonies for security during the nesting season, usually at predator-free sites such as remote islands including: pelicans, cormorants, gulls, terns, egrets, herons, and ibis

Commensalism: mutually beneficial relationship between organisms of different species

Community: collective term used to describe an assemblage of plant and animal species occupying the same area at the same time

Compound Bow Brace Height: distance between the pivot point of the grip and the string at rest

Conditional migrator: deer that move shorter distances and/or migrate infrequently compared to obligate migrators

Conditional Summer Range: range occupied by conditional migratory deer during the snow free seasons of spring, summer, and fall

Conditional Winter Range: deer classified as conditional migrators occupy landscapes that experience moderate snow conditions. Conditional deer move shorter distances, at more infrequent intervals and for shorter periods of time. Conditional deer occasionally experience periodic inclement winter snow events prompting them to move to suitable conifer shelter, however, as soon as snow conditions improve, they return to areas occupied during summer

Coniferous: cone-bearing gymnosperm (tree or shrub) belonging to the Coniferinae class including: pine, fir, spruce, juniper, and cypress. These trees  keep their needles during the winter and wildlife often use these trees for cover and food sources

Connectivity (landscape or habitat): extent that landscape facilitates the movement of organisms and their genes. Loss of connectivity reduces the size and quality of available habitat, impede and disrupt movement (including dispersal) to new habitats, and affect seasonal migration patterns

Conservation: the protection, improvement, and wise use of natural resources by humans for present and future generations (sustainable and multiple use) 

Conservation action: measures taken to conserve, protect, and manage a plant or animal species and their key wildlife habitats

Consumer: for a food chain, a consumer is an animal that must depend upon plant and/or other animals for its energy

Consumptive: use of wildlife through hunting, fishing, trapping, or population control as a food source, for recreation, or population management

Consumptive use (of wildlife): human use of wildlife resources involving the extraction of wildlife from its habitat; activities such as hunting, fishing, and trapping; consumptive use entails the assigning of recreational or economic value to the extracted wildlife resource

Contamination: make something unpure or unclean

Contiguous forests: forests that share an edge or boundary, touching

Coordinated data management: practice of integrating data about the same subject from many different sources, in order to better evaluate trends in parameters across a variety of geographic scales

Corridor: areas of continuous habitat (narrow strip or land path) that permit animals to travel securely across open landscape from one habitat to another

Cover: description of the protection and seclusion afforded by a combination of vegetation and topography. Often a place of natural shelter for an animal or bird

Cover Scent: scent used to cover or hide human scent while hunting for deer and other big game animals

Cover type: vegetation classification depicting a genus, species, group of species, or life form of tree, shrub, grass, or sedge of an area

Coverts: one or more of a group of feathers covering the bases of the longer main feathers of a bird’s wings or tail

Covey: a small group or flock, often a family group, of birds such as quail

Crab: aquatic invertebrate crustacean having eyes on short stalks; a short, broad, flattened body; and five pairs of legs, two of which are modified into claws

Crepuscular: appearing or becoming active at twilight or dawn

Crossbow: means a bow capable of holding an arrow at full or partial draw without human aid

Curtilage: area encompassing the grounds immediately surrounding any home or group of homes used in the daily activities of domestic life, which may or may not be enclosed by a fence or other barrier

Cusps: points or projections on the surface of a tooth

Cycle: recurring period of time in which certain events repeat themselves in the same order and at the same intervals such as the water cycle



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