Wildlife Management Terms - F

Fauna: animal life of a given region, environment, or time period

Fawn: newborn or baby deer., they usually have white spots across their back to help the hide in thick vegetation. They are born in the spring, and considered a fawn until it reaching one year old

Featured Species: wildlife species whose habitat requirements guide wildlife management emphasis 

Federally listed species: species listed either as endangered, threatened, or at risk

Fen: unique wetland type, possessing a water source that originates from alkaline (high pH, basic) ground water. They possess unique wetland vegetation such as grasses and sedges that are adapted to saturated alkaline growing conditions

Feral: animals from a domesticated species that return to a wild state without any direct human supervision or control; not tame

Fern: green plant characterized by fibrous roots and leaves called fronds. It usually thrives in the shade, does not flower, and has spores instead of seeds

Field borders: strips of planted or volunteer vegetation along the edges of crop fields that provide food and cover for wildlife

Field dressing: removing the entrails of a deer after harvest to reduce weight during drag out and to begin cooling down the meat  

Field Trial: event where unleashed dogs are worked and judged

Firearm: breech or muzzle-loading rifle, shotgun, or handgun

Firefly: insects that are not flies, but soft-bodied beetles. The light-giving abilities of the fireflies may extend also to the eggs and larvae. Scientists are studying fireflies because of their ability to make light without heat.

Fish: animal that swims, contains gills, fins, and backbone. Many species also are covered in scales

Flashiness: how quickly flow in a river or stream increases or decreases during a storm

Flood plains: area at low elevation adjoining a body of water that receives regular inundation of water, but is more fertile and productive than adjacent uplands 

Flora: plant life of a given region, environment, or time period

Fluvial: presence or interaction of a river within an area or landform

Flyway: fly routes established air-route of migratory birds, such as ducks and other waterfowl 

Food: any substance absorbed by the body which yields materials for energy, growth, and repair of tissue and regulation of the life process without harming the organism

Food chain: sequence of plant and animal organisms interactions at different levels starting with green plants in which each is food for higher and more complex organisms including: autotrophs, herbivores, and carnivores. Energy is transferred from the lowest level to the highest level

Food Web: many connected and interlocking pattern of food chains by which organisms of a community obtain their energy. 

Foothold trap: spring-loaded trap with smooth, metallic or rubber soft-catch jaws that close upon an animal's foot

Forbs: broad-leaved herb other than a grass, especially one growing in a field, prairie or meadow

Forage: all browse and herbaceous plant foods that are available to animals. 

Forb: any herbaceous plant other than grasses or grass-like plants. 

Forecast: prediction used exclusively in predicting short-term (i.e., days to weeks) weather

Forest composition: makeup of the forest in terms of the living organisms or groups of organisms and non-living components present in the forest; all of the tree species that are found in the forest

Forest game: species whose habitat needs are found mainly in forests

Forest matrix: open, developed, and/or agricultural areas that separate patches of forest in cases of forest fragmentation

Forest type: groups of tree species commonly growing in the same stand because their environmental requirements are similar. North Carolina examples include oak-hickory, loblolly-shortleaf pine, oak-pine, and oak-gum-cypress 

Fragmentation (habitat): partitioning of larger habitats into smaller, more isolated parcels, usually as a result of development. Fragmentation of habitat can negatively affect the abundance and diversity of plants and animals in an area

Fresh water: water containing no salt or very little salt, has a salt concentration of 0 - 3 ppt or less 

Frog: cold-blooded amphibian with powerful hind legs, living in or near water. Initially they breathe with gills, when mature they breathe with lungs. Life stages include egg, tadpole, and mature frog 

Fully-automatic firearm: firearm that discharges more than one (1) round with a single pull of the trigger

Functional shelter: conifer stands with at least 70% canopy closure and tree heights greater than 30 feet. These thresholds for canopy closure and height ensure the stand is effective at intercepting snow, resulting in decreased snow depths and increased mobility for deer to access food and avoid predators

Fungi: group of plants that lack chlorophyll (are not green), and get nourishment from any organic source. They are important decomposers. Mushrooms are a type of fungi

Fur bearers: various animals that have a thick coat of soft hair covering their bodies and include: mink, muskrat, beaver, raccoon, opossum, gray fox, red fox, least weasel, long-tailed weasel, river otter, bobcat, coyote, or striped skunk



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