Wildlife Management Terms - S

Salinity: dissolved salt content in a body of water; may be given in ppm, ppt, or mg/L 

Saltwater: saline water containing concentrations of at least 35 ppt, or more, of salt

Sawgrass: greenish-brown sedge which has three sawtooth edges that can cut and usually found in brackish water

Scat: excrement droppings of an animal

Scouting: spending time in the woods and fields for sign wildlife leave to try to unravel their movement patterns and plan a good location to place a stand

Scrape: ground that has pawed away leaves and grass. In addition the buck has urinated and left his scent on an overhanging branch to attract does and let other bucks know of his presence. A scrape is used to communicate with other deer and does let bucks know they are ready to breed by urinating in a scrape

Seasons: time periods for which hunting is allowed

Secondary: next after the first in order, place, time, or importance

Secondary Shelter Species: white spruce, balsam fir and white pine are secondary shelter species. They intercept less snow than cedar and hemlock but contribute to functional shelter especially when mixed with cedar and hemlock trees. In high density stands composed of these tree species, they provide suitable winter shelter on conditional deer winter range during most years. These forest types also provide feeding corridors through hardwood stands and shelter during periods of lower snow depth

Sedimentation: settling-out or deposition of suspended materials

Seeds: reproductive package containing a plant embryo along with its food supply, wrapped in a protective seed coat

Senses: any of the faculties in which humans or animals perceive stimuli. Humans primary senses include hearing, smell, sight, taste, and touch

Sensitivity: descriptor indicating the degree to which a species or habitat is likely to be affected, and is linked to its dependence on current environmental and ecological conditions

Seral community: group of plants within an intermediate period in ecological succession

Serological analysis: laboratory test that uses a sample of blood serum, the clear liquid that separates from the blood when it is allowed to clot. The purpose of such a test is to detect serum antibodies that the body puts out to help fight infections

Sex ratio: ratio of male individuals to female individuals in a given population 

Shedding: when a disease produces infectious agents that can infect other hosts

Shelter (primary): primary shelter consists of suitable densities (> 70 % canopy closure) of eastern hemlock and northern white cedar stands that are over 30 feet in height. Hemlock and cedar grow in high densities and their growth forms intercept a high percentage of snow plus they are readily browsed by deer for winter food. Due to the frequency of extreme snow conditions, primary shelter is necessary for obligate deer to survive winter

Shelter (secondary): secondary shelter consists of natural stands of balsam fir, white spruce, white pine and mixed stands containing these and other conifer. Trees must be at least 30 feet in height and possess a minimum of 50% canopy closure. Secondary shelter is adequate on conditional deer range but is not suitable for obligate deer winter range. Encouraging secondary shelter species in stands or clumps within these areas helps to improve mobility of deer as secondary species intercept snow and reduces the amount of energy to forage for food

Shelter (Tertiary): hardwood and conifer trees plus shrubs that provide suitable winter protection from snow and wind, or during summer, relief from direct sunlight and elevated temperatures

Shoat: young pig that has been weaned

Shotshell: ammunition containing more than one (1) projectile

Slough: wide, deeper drainage channel of water on the edge of a river that is often the old river channel, sometimes referred to as an oxbow

Small game: any animal hunted for sport that is small in stature including: squirrels and rabbits(furbearers), northern bobwhite (quail) or ruffed grouse (game birds), reptiles, and amphibians

Smolt: young fish (<2 years) in the stage of its first migration to the sea

Snake: limbless, scaled, cold-blooded, reptile with an elongated body

Snare: wire, cable, or string with a knot, loop, or a single piece closing device, the deployment of which is or is not spring-assisted, but any spring-assisted device is not for the purpose of applying tension to the closing device

Snort: loud puff of air forced through the nostrils of a deer to sound an alarm to other deer

Soft mast: fruits and berries of dogwood, viburnums, elderberry, huckleberry, spicebush, grape, raspberry, and blackberry that wildlife feed on

Soil: portion of the earth's surface consisting of disintegrated rock and humus or periphyton

Sounder: social unit of pigs usually consisting of two to three related adult sows, their piglets, and both juvenile males and females from previous litters

Sow: female pig that has farrowed at least once

Species: population of genetically similar organisms that are able to breed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions; a category of biological classification immediately below the genus or subgenus 

Species diversity: number, variety and equitability of life forms associated with an area. Often used as an indicator of the health of an ecosystem

Species richness: number of wildlife species found in a given area

Sprawl (urban or suburban): expansion of human communities away from urban centers and into previously undeveloped areas, often necessitating the increased use of transportation

Spruce budworm: insect causing defoliation and possible death of mature spruce and especially balsam fir trees. Major outbreaks occur every 70 – 100 years

Spur: stiff projection on the legs of turkeys, much more elongated and pronounced in males

Squaller: hand-operated, mouth-operated, or electronic call capable of mimicking the vocalizations of furbearers

Stakeholder: person or group with independent interest in a project

Stalking: slow, silent pursuit of an animal that allows the hunter to get close enough for a good, clean shot

Stand: group of trees that are approximately the same in species composition, age class, and condition, often managed as a unit. 

Stewardship management (total resource management): practice of managing all the natural resources as a whole. Using and enjoying the natural resources with responsibility and care for the future

Still Hunting: still hunting is the continuous movement of a hunter through an animal’s environment in hopes of finding the desired game. The hunter takes a few steps, stops, looks around – sometimes with binoculars – and listens for the slightest sound of the game animal being hunted

Stochasticity: referring to patterns resulting from random factors

Storm surge: rapid rise of sea level associated with tropical storms. During extreme precipitation events, coastal areas are at an elevated risk of flooding from storm surges that raise the sea much higher than the mean level

Stranding: when an animal is beached on shore or in shallow water and unable to return itself to deeper water

Strategic Plan: list of long-reaching primary issues and their solutions for accomplishing a mission

Streamside management zone (SMZ): buffer strips, filter strips, or riparian zones adjacent to water bodies. Width varies depending on a variety of factors, but must be sufficient to effectively prevent sedimentation and meet regulatory requirements. 

Sub-canopy: plant layer below the tree tops (top canopy) 

Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV): vascular plants that live and grow completely underwater

Subnivean: zone in or under snowpack or occurring under the snowpack

Subtidal: zone of the shoreline that is below low tide and is always covered by water

Succession: change in species composition and community structure over time, as in the development of a plant community from field to mature forest. Early successional plant communities are characterized by forbs, grasses and some shrubs and late successional plant communities are characterized by shade-tolerant tree species

Succession (Ecological): process of community development that involves changes in species structure and community processes over time

Successional habitat: community made up of shrubs, sapling trees, and other low-lying plants that colonize an area after a major disturbance alters an older community

Successional disking or mowing: mechanical methods of maintaining or promoting the regrowth of non-woody plants. Periodic disking shifts plant composition to annual forbs and grasses. Mowing maintains a perennial community of herbaceous plants and woody sprouts, but may promote a build-up of thatch that restricts access by some wildlife species 

Successional Stage: one in a series of usually transitory communities or developmental stages that occur in a particular site or area over a period of time. Eventually, on most sites, a relatively stable, self- perpetuating stage, called a climax, is attained

Summer Deer Range: range occupied by deer during the snow free seasons of spring, summer and fall

Sun: star that is the central body of our solar system, around which the planets revolve and from which they receive light and heat

Swamp: wetland where the water may be fresh or salty

Synergism: interaction of multiple parts to create an effect that is greater than the sum of the parts



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